# Source code for ax.modelbridge.generation_node

```
#!/usr/bin/env python3
# Copyright (c) Meta Platforms, Inc. and affiliates.
#
# This source code is licensed under the MIT license found in the
# LICENSE file in the root directory of this source tree.
from __future__ import annotations
from dataclasses import dataclass, field
from typing import Any, Callable, Dict, List, Optional, Sequence, Union
from ax.core.data import Data # Perhaps need to use `AbstractDataFrameData`?
from ax.core.experiment import Experiment
from ax.core.generator_run import GeneratorRun
from ax.core.observation import ObservationFeatures
from ax.core.optimization_config import OptimizationConfig
from ax.core.search_space import SearchSpace
from ax.exceptions.core import UserInputError
from ax.modelbridge.base import ModelBridge
from ax.modelbridge.completion_criterion import CompletionCriterion
from ax.modelbridge.cross_validation import BestModelSelector, CVDiagnostics, CVResult
from ax.modelbridge.model_spec import FactoryFunctionModelSpec, ModelSpec
from ax.modelbridge.registry import ModelRegistryBase
from ax.utils.common.base import SortableBase
from ax.utils.common.typeutils import not_none
TModelFactory = Callable[..., ModelBridge]
CANNOT_SELECT_ONE_MODEL_MSG = """
Base `GenerationNode` does not implement selection among fitted
models, so exactly one `ModelSpec` must be specified when using
`GenerationNode._pick_fitted_model_to_gen_from` (usually called
by `GenerationNode.gen`.
"""
[docs]class GenerationNode:
"""Base class for generation node, capable of fitting one or more
model specs under the hood and generating candidates from them.
"""
model_specs: List[ModelSpec]
_model_spec_to_gen_from: Optional[ModelSpec] = None
def __init__(
self,
model_specs: List[ModelSpec],
best_model_selector: Optional[BestModelSelector] = None,
) -> None:
# While `GenerationNode` only handles a single `ModelSpec` in the `gen`
# and `_pick_fitted_model_to_gen_from` methods, we validate the
# length of `model_specs` in `_pick_fitted_model_to_gen_from` in order
# to not require all `GenerationNode` subclasses to override an `__init__`
# method to bypass that validation.
self.model_specs = model_specs
self.best_model_selector = best_model_selector
@property
def model_spec_to_gen_from(self) -> ModelSpec:
"""Returns the cached `_model_spec_to_gen_from` or gets it from
`_pick_fitted_model_to_gen_from` and then caches and returns it
"""
if self._model_spec_to_gen_from is not None:
return self._model_spec_to_gen_from
self._model_spec_to_gen_from = self._pick_fitted_model_to_gen_from()
return self._model_spec_to_gen_from
@property
def model_enum(self) -> ModelRegistryBase:
"""model_enum from self.model_spec_to_gen_from for convenience"""
return self.model_spec_to_gen_from.model_enum
@property
def model_kwargs(self) -> Optional[Dict[str, Any]]:
"""model_kwargs from self.model_spec_to_gen_from for convenience"""
return self.model_spec_to_gen_from.model_kwargs
@property
def model_gen_kwargs(self) -> Optional[Dict[str, Any]]:
"""model_gen_kwargs from self.model_spec_to_gen_from for convenience"""
return self.model_spec_to_gen_from.model_gen_kwargs
@property
def model_cv_kwargs(self) -> Optional[Dict[str, Any]]:
"""model_cv_kwargs from self.model_spec_to_gen_from for convenience"""
return self.model_spec_to_gen_from.model_cv_kwargs
@property
def fitted_model(self) -> ModelBridge:
"""fitted_model from self.model_spec_to_gen_from for convenience"""
return self.model_spec_to_gen_from.fitted_model # pragma: no cover
@property
def fixed_features(self) -> Optional[ObservationFeatures]:
"""fixed_features from self.model_spec_to_gen_from for convenience"""
if len({model_spec.fixed_features for model_spec in self.model_specs}) == 1:
return self.model_specs[0].fixed_features
return self.model_spec_to_gen_from.fixed_features
@property
def cv_results(self) -> Optional[List[CVResult]]:
"""cv_results from self.model_spec_to_gen_from for convenience"""
return self.model_spec_to_gen_from.cv_results
@property
def diagnostics(self) -> Optional[CVDiagnostics]:
"""diagnostics from self.model_spec_to_gen_from for convenience"""
return self.model_spec_to_gen_from.diagnostics
[docs] def fit(
self,
experiment: Experiment,
data: Data,
search_space: Optional[SearchSpace] = None,
optimization_config: Optional[OptimizationConfig] = None,
**kwargs: Any,
) -> None:
"""Fits the specified models to the given experiment + data using
the model kwargs set on each corresponding model spec and the kwargs
passed to this method.
NOTE: Local kwargs take precedence over the ones stored in
``ModelSpec.model_kwargs``.
"""
self._model_spec_to_gen_from = None
for model_spec in self.model_specs:
model_spec.fit( # Stores the fitted model as `model_spec._fitted_model`
experiment=experiment,
data=data,
search_space=search_space,
optimization_config=optimization_config,
**kwargs,
)
[docs] def update(self, experiment: Experiment, new_data: Data) -> None:
"""Updates the specified models on the given experiment + new data."""
raise NotImplementedError("`update` is not supported yet.") # pragma: no cover
[docs] def gen(
self,
n: Optional[int] = None,
pending_observations: Optional[Dict[str, List[ObservationFeatures]]] = None,
) -> GeneratorRun:
"""Picks a fitted model, from which to generate candidates (via
``self._pick_fitted_model_to_gen_from``) and generates candidates
from it. Uses the ``model_gen_kwargs`` set on the selected ``ModelSpec``
alongside any kwargs passed in to this function (with local kwargs)
taking precedent.
Args:
n: Optional nteger representing how many arms should be in the generator
run produced by this method. When this is ``None``, ``n`` will be
determined by the ``ModelSpec`` that we are generating from.
pending_observations: A map from metric name to pending
observations for that metric, used by some models to avoid
resuggesting points that are currently being evaluated.
NOTE: Models must have been fit prior to calling ``gen``.
NOTE: Some underlying models may ignore the ``n`` argument and produce a
model-determined number of arms. In that case this method will also output
a generator run with number of arms (that can differ from ``n``).
"""
model_spec = self.model_spec_to_gen_from
return model_spec.gen(
# If `n` is not specified, ensure that the `None` value does not
# override the one set in `model_spec.model_gen_kwargs`.
n=model_spec.model_gen_kwargs.get("n")
if n is None and model_spec.model_gen_kwargs
else n,
# For `pending_observations`, prefer the input to this function, as
# `pending_observations` are dynamic throughout the experiment and thus
# unlikely to be specified in `model_spec.model_gen_kwargs`.
pending_observations=pending_observations,
)
def _pick_fitted_model_to_gen_from(self) -> ModelSpec:
"""Select one model to generate from among the fitted models on this
generation node.
NOTE: In base ``GenerationNode`` class, this method does the following:
1. if this ``GenerationNode`` has an associated ``BestModelSelector``,
use it to select one model to generate from among the fitted models
on this generation node.
2. otherwise, ensure that this ``GenerationNode`` only contains one
`ModelSpec` and select it.
"""
if self.best_model_selector is None:
if len(self.model_specs) != 1:
raise NotImplementedError(CANNOT_SELECT_ONE_MODEL_MSG)
return self.model_specs[0]
for model_spec in self.model_specs:
model_spec.cross_validate()
best_model_index = not_none(self.best_model_selector).best_diagnostic(
diagnostics=[not_none(m.diagnostics) for m in self.model_specs],
)
return self.model_specs[best_model_index]
[docs]@dataclass
class GenerationStep(GenerationNode, SortableBase):
"""One step in the generation strategy, corresponds to a single model.
Describes the model, how many trials will be generated with this model, what
minimum number of observations is required to proceed to the next model, etc.
NOTE: Model can be specified either from the model registry
(`ax.modelbridge.registry.Models` or using a callable model constructor. Only
models from the registry can be saved, and thus optimization can only be
resumed if interrupted when using models from the registry.
Args:
model: A member of `Models` enum or a callable returning an instance of
`ModelBridge` with an instantiated underlying `Model`. Refer to
`ax/modelbridge/factory.py` for examples of such callables.
num_trials: How many trials to generate with the model from this step.
If set to -1, trials will continue to be generated from this model
as long as `generation_strategy.gen` is called (available only for
the last of the generation steps).
min_trials_observed: How many trials must be completed before the
generation strategy can proceed to the next step. Defaults to 0.
If `num_trials` of a given step have been generated but `min_trials_
observed` have not been completed, a call to `generation_strategy.gen`
will fail with a `DataRequiredError`.
max_parallelism: How many trials generated in the course of this step are
allowed to be run (i.e. have `trial.status` of `RUNNING`) simultaneously.
If `max_parallelism` trials from this step are already running, a call
to `generation_strategy.gen` will fail with a `MaxParallelismReached
Exception`, indicating that more trials need to be completed before
generating and running next trials.
use_update: Whether to use `model_bridge.update` instead or reinstantiating
model + bridge on every call to `gen` within a single generation step.
NOTE: use of `update` on stateful models that do not implement `_get_state`
may result in inability to correctly resume a generation strategy from
a serialized state.
enforce_num_trials: Whether to enforce that only `num_trials` are generated
from the given step. If False and `num_trials` have been generated, but
`min_trials_observed` have not been completed, `generation_strategy.gen`
will continue generating trials from the current step, exceeding `num_
trials` for it. Allows to avoid `DataRequiredError`, but delays
proceeding to next generation step.
model_kwargs: Dictionary of kwargs to pass into the model constructor on
instantiation. E.g. if `model` is `Models.SOBOL`, kwargs will be applied
as `Models.SOBOL(**model_kwargs)`; if `model` is `get_sobol`, `get_sobol(
**model_kwargs)`. NOTE: if generation strategy is interrupted and
resumed from a stored snapshot and its last used model has state saved on
its generator runs, `model_kwargs` is updated with the state dict of the
model, retrieved from the last generator run of this generation strategy.
model_gen_kwargs: Each call to `generation_strategy.gen` performs a call to the
step's model's `gen` under the hood; `model_gen_kwargs` will be passed to
the model's `gen` like so: `model.gen(**model_gen_kwargs)`.
completion_criteria: List of CompletionCriterion. All `is_met` must evaluate
True for the GenerationStrategy to move on to the next Step
index: Index of this generation step, for use internally in `Generation
Strategy`. Do not assign as it will be reassigned when instantiating
`GenerationStrategy` with a list of its steps.
should_deduplicate: Whether to deduplicate the parameters of proposed arms
against those of previous arms via rejection sampling. If this is True,
the generation strategy will discard generator runs produced from the
generation step that has `should_deduplicate=True` if they contain arms
already present on the experiment and replace them with new generator runs.
If no generator run with entirely unique arms could be produced in 5
attempts, a `GenerationStrategyRepeatedPoints` error will be raised, as we
assume that the optimization converged when the model can no longer suggest
unique arms.
"""
# Required options:
model: Union[ModelRegistryBase, Callable[..., ModelBridge]]
num_trials: int
# Optional model specifications:
# Kwargs to pass into the Models constructor (or factory function).
model_kwargs: Optional[Dict[str, Any]] = None
# Kwargs to pass into the Model's `.gen` function.
model_gen_kwargs: Optional[Dict[str, Any]] = None
# Optional specifications for use in generation strategy:
completion_criteria: Sequence[CompletionCriterion] = field(default_factory=list)
min_trials_observed: int = 0
max_parallelism: Optional[int] = None
use_update: bool = False
enforce_num_trials: bool = True
# Whether the generation strategy should deduplicate the suggested arms against
# the arms already present on the experiment. If this is `True`
# on a given generation step, during that step the generation
# strategy will discard a generator run that contains an arm
# already present on the experiment and produce a new generator
# run instead before returning it from `gen` or `_gen_multiple`.
should_deduplicate: bool = False
index: int = -1 # Index of this step, set internally.
def __post_init__(self) -> None:
if not isinstance(self.model, ModelRegistryBase):
if not callable(self.model):
raise UserInputError( # pragma: no cover
"`model` in generation step must be either a `ModelRegistryBase` "
"enum subclass entry or a callable factory function returning a "
"model bridge instance."
)
model_spec = FactoryFunctionModelSpec(
factory_function=self.model,
model_kwargs=self.model_kwargs,
model_gen_kwargs=self.model_gen_kwargs,
)
else:
model_spec = ModelSpec(
model_enum=self.model,
model_kwargs=self.model_kwargs,
model_gen_kwargs=self.model_gen_kwargs,
)
super().__init__(model_specs=[model_spec])
@property
def model_spec(self) -> ModelSpec:
return self.model_specs[0]
@property
def model_name(self) -> str:
return self.model_spec.model_key
@property
def _unique_id(self) -> str:
return str(self.index)
```